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Scientific contribution

JARPA/JARPAII

December 2013, Scientific contribution from JARPA/JARPA II (pdf file)


The Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) was conducted between the austral summer seasons of 1987/88 and 2004/05. The JARPA had four main objectives: a) estimation of biological parameters to improve the stock management of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale; b) elucidate the role of whales in the Antarctic marine ecosystem; c) elucidation of the effect of environmental change on cetaceans; and d) elucidation of the stock structure of Southern Hemisphere minke whales to improve stock management.


The International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee (IWC SC) carried out two review workshops on JARPA, the first in 1997 (mid-term review) and the second on December 2006 (final review). Reports of these workshops can be found in the following web site:


http://www.icrwhale.org/JARPAReview1.html (mid-term review)

http://www.icrwhale.org/pdf/SC59Rep1.pdf (final review)


JARPA II started with two feasibility surveys in the seasons 2005/06 and 2006/07. The first full survey started in the 2007/08 season. The objectives of the JARPA II are the following: a) monitoring the Antarctic ecosystem (whale abundance trends and biological parameters; krill abundance and the feeding ecology of whales; effects of contaminants on cetaceans; cetacean habitat); b) modeling competition among whale species and future management objectives (constructing a model of competition among whale species; new management objectives including the restoration of the cetacean ecosystem); c) elucidation of temporal and spatial changes in stock structure; and d) improving the management procedure for Antarctic minke whale stocks.


The IWC SC will carry out a review of data and results of JARPA II for the first six years (2005/06-2010/11) in February 2014.


Scientific contribution of JARPA/JARPA II

Scientific contribution of JARPA/JARPA II has been made in different forms, as scientific documents for the IWC SC meetings and other scientific meetings of intergovernmental organizations, as publications in peer reviewed journals, and as oral presentations at scientific symposiums.


The following table shows the number of IWC SC documents, peer-reviewed publications and oral presentations at scientific symposium based on JARPA/JARPA II sample/data, by year.


Year IWC SC and other meetings documents Peer reviewed publications Oral presentations at symposia
1988 0 0 2
1989 3 2 6
1990 6 8 5
1991 4 9 5
1992 4 2 6
1993 4 7 7
1994 9 3 7
1995 9 3 11
1996 6 7 7
1997 27 3 4
1998 5 7 2
1999 12 4 6
2000 12 5 10
2001 6 3 15
2002 7 6 15
2003 9 5 22
2004 2 8 14
2005 8 6 21
2006 44 9 12
2007 11 7 6
2008 5 4 8
2009 5 2 8
2010 3 13 1
2011 4 1 3
2012 3 1 3
2013 6 5 0
Total 214 130 206

Documents submitted to the IWC SC and other scientific meetings of intergovernmental organizations

In the period 1988-2013 a total of 214 documents were presented to annual and intersessional meetings of the IWC SC and other meetings, with an annual average of 8.2 documents. In the IWC SC, documents were presented mainly at the RMP (Revised Management Procedure), IA (In-depth assessment), SH (Southern Hemisphere) and SP (Special Permit) sub-committees, which deal mainly with assessment and management of whales.


Peer reviewed publications

The number of peer-reviewed papers made in the same period is 130, with an annual average of 5.0 papers. Scientific contributions have been made not only in the field of whale assessment and management but also in the field of whale natural sciences.


Oral presentations at symposium

The number of oral presentations at scientific symposia in the period 1988-2013 is 206, with an annual average of 7.9 presentations. Scientific contributions have been made not only in the field of whale assessment and management but also in the field of whale natural sciences. Titles and contents of the presentations can be found in the annual progress report of the Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR) and Japan Progress Report on Cetacean Research presented to the annual IWC SC meetings.


The list of the IWC SC and other meetings documents, and peer-reviewed papers derived from JARPA/JARPA II is shown in the Appendix 1, by year. An asterisk (*) indicates those papers published in peer-reviewed journals. Documents or peer-reviewed publications having as a first author a foreign scientist commonly followed a data request or collaboration research agreement with ICR. In a few cases foreign scientists have used published data from JARPA or JARPA II in their analyses and papers, without a formal agreement with ICR. These cases are indicated by a symbol (&).


Documents and publications based on lethal and non-lethal sample/data

In the list there is an indication on whether the document or publication is based on lethal or non-lethal sampling and whether it was carried out by Japanese or foreign scientists as the first author (symbols in red after each document or publication). The category does not include review papers, comments papers, etc. A summary of the information is shown in the table below:


L-J L-F NL-J NL-F L,NL-J
149 33 81 19 37

Note: L-J= document or publication based on lethal sampling by Japanese scientists; L-F= lethal, foreign scientist; NL-J= non-lethal, Japanese scientist; NL-F= non-lethal, foreign scientist; L,NL-J= lethal and non-lethal, Japanese scientist. The latter category includes cruise reports and some genetic analyses based on both lethal and biopsy sampling. ‘Japanese’/‘Foreign’ classification is according to the nationality of the first author in the documents, except in the case of one foreign scientist in the ICR who was in the category ‘Japanese’ in this document.


University theses

JARPA/JARPA II sample/data have been used in pre-graduated, master and doctoral theses. The number of theses by year is indicated in the following table:


Year Pre-graduated Master Doctor
1993 1
1994 1 1
1995 1 1
1996 1 1
1997 3
1998 1 1
1999 3 4 1
2000 1
2001 2
2002 5 1 3
2003 2 2
2004 2 1 2
2005 1 5 2
2006 1
2007 2
2008 2
2009 1 3
2010 1 1 1
2011 1 1 2
2012 1 1
2013 1
Total 23 29 16

Other scientific contribution

JARPA/JARPA II data/samples have been used also in chapters of books, bulletin of ICR (Geiken Tsushin) and Suisan Shigen Kanri Danwakaihou.


JARPA/JARPA II biological material such as whale skeletons has been provided to municipal museums.


Data access and availability

All the data and samples obtained by JARPA/JARPA II are available to the national and international scientific community through established data access protocols. Appendix 2 shows the data access protocol of ICR, which can also be found at the IWC SC web page.

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